In the previous blog, we concluded our three-part series on underground cable fault location. To review, we discussed the types of cable faults, methodology for locating cable faults, fault finding through Pre-location techniques and cable route tracing, pinpointing, cable identification and repair and re-test.
In Part-2 of our 3 part series, we introduced the methodology of Pre-location using Time Domain Reflectometer (TDR) method. In this blog post, we will share our knowledge on accurately setting velocity of propagation in TDR method and the importance for the same.
Velocity of Propagation in TDR Method
For accurate fault location for underground cables using TDR method, it is essential that the correct velocity be applied.
To review the TDR method, a low voltage, high frequency pulse is sent into the cable from one end. If any impedance mismatch occurs in the cable, then part or all of the pulse energy is reflected back towards the TDR (Prelocator) unit. The time taken by pulse having particular velocity of propagation for returning back to source end is the measure of the fault distance. The velocity of propagation is constant for a particular cable and depends on the cable dielectric/insulation material, insulation thickness, conductor size, conductor resistance manufacturing process, etc.
The velocity of propagation (V) of TDR pulse in a cable is the ratio of velocity of light in free space (C) and square root of relative permittivity (εr) of the dielectric / insulation of cable. The actual fault distance is calculated by multiplying travelling time of pulse in microseconds and velocity of propagation in meters per microsecond.
As the pulse travels to fault point and returns back, the value of velocity of propagation is used as half of the actual i.e., V/2 in most of the instruments, for ease in calculations. While some of the manufacturers use actual value of velocity of propagation(V) as input and display the distance value which is half of the calculated value.
Velocity Factor (VF)
Velocity of propagation is also expressed in terms of velocity of light in free space. The ratio of the propagation velocity of electromagnetic wave (TDR Pulse) in the cable (V) and the velocity of light in free space (C≈300m/μs) is called as Velocity Factor (VF). It is calculated in m/μs. The unknown value of VF for cable under test can be determined by TDR testing of a known length of that cable and adjust the VF until the distance displayed to the end of the cable is correct.
Propagation Factor (PF)
The propagation factor is the velocity of light in free space in m/μs (C) divided by the velocity of propagation of TDR pulse in a given cable in m/μs (V). Propagation factor is also called “shortening factor”.
Percentage Velocity (VoP%)
The percentage of the velocity of propagation of TDR pulse (m/μs) in a given cable with respect to velocity of light in free space is called VoP (%). It is simply calculated by multiplying velocity factor by 100.
To better illuminate our discussion, consider that a particular type of cable is having the Velocity of Propagation as 172m/μs, by considering the speed of light in free space as 300m/μs, the various relations of VOP will be as below:
- Velocity of Propagation, V = 172m/μs
- Velocity Factor, VF = V/C =172 / 300 = 0.573
- Propagation Factor, PF = C/V=300 / 172=1.744
- VoP (%) = VF x 100 = 0.573 * 100 = 57.3
The table below illustrates the typical values based on types of cable insulation and dielectric/insulation type:
|Velocity Factor||Propagation Factor||VoP(%)||V|
Paper / PIC
|0.5 to 0.57||2 to 1.75||50 |
|Power||PVC||0.51 to .58||1.97 to 1.715||51|
|Power||Paper Oil Filled||0.72 to 0.84||1.38 to 1.19||72 |
|Power||PE||0.46 to 0.58||1.72 to 2.15||46 |
|Power||XLPE||0.54 to 0.62||1.92 to 1.61||54 |
|Power||EPR||0.45 to 0.57||2.22 to 1.75||45 |
|Twisted Pair||Polyethylene||0.64 to 0.67||1.56 to 1.49||64 |
|Twisted Pair||Dry Paper||0.72 to 0.88||1.38 to 1.14||72 |
|108 to 132|
|Telecom||PIC||0.65 to 0.72||1.54 to 1.39||65 |
|Telecom||Pulp||0.66 to 0.71||1.51 to 1.41||66 |
|Telecom||Gel Filled||0.58 to 0.68||1.72 to 1.47||58 |
|Telecom||Co-Axial||0.82 to 0.98||1.22 to 1.02||82 |
By correctly applying the velocity of propagation in TDR method as discussed above, we can ensure the accuracy of underground cable fault location using TDR method.
For more information on SCOPE cable fault locator capabilities, please visit https://www.scopetnm.com/test-and-measurements or check our recent webinar on cable fault location on SCOPE’s YouTube channel. We also invite you to e-mail us at email@example.com for any queries, product quotations or services.